“I have a Tumblr, which is sort of feminist- y, social justice-y”: Women of color cultivating virtual social capital to survive and thrive.

womenofcolorandsocialmediaAuthors: Charmaraman, L., Chan, B., Price, T., & Richer, A.

Year Published: 2015

Source: Women of Color and Social Media Multitasking: Blogs, Timelines, Feeds, and Community.

Active representation and police response to sexual assault complaints

Year Published: 2016

Author: Melissa Morabito, Ph.D., April Pattavina, Ph.D., and Linda M. Williams, Ph.D.

Source: Journal of Crime and Justice

Policing has long been a profession dominated by white males. Yet, the organizational literature suggests that diverse public sector organizations are essential to a well-functioning democracy. Representative bureaucracy theory is the idea that public agencies should mirror the society in which it functions in order to best meet the needs of its citizens. There are three necessary conditions in order for representative bureaucracy theory to be applicable to a problem. First, bureaucrats must have discretion in decision-making. Next, bureaucrats must exercise discretion in a policy area that has important implications for the group they represent. Finally, bureaucrats must be directly associated with the decisions they make. Given that police work requires extraordinary discretion, representation holds great importance for police organizations. There has, however, been scant literature examining the interaction between representation, organizational characteristics of police agencies, and situational characteristics of sexual assault incidents. This paper builds upon previous research regarding the effect of diversity on public safety outcomes. A national sample of police organizations reporting to both Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics and National Incident-Based Reporting System are used with specific attention paid to interaction between organizational characteristics, agency innovativeness, and representation.


The Economics of Education in Finland – A Historical Perspective

Year Published: 2002

Authors: Sari Pekkala Kerr, Pehkonen J., Nenonen T., Kangasharju, A.,

Source: University of Jyväskylä, School of Business and Economics


Adolescents’ Religious Discordance with Mothers: Is There a Connection to Sexual Risk Behavior During Emerging Adulthood?

journalofprimarypreventionYear Published: 2013

Authors: Grossman, J.M., Tracy, A.J. & Noonan, A.

Source: Journal of Primary Prevention, 34, 329-343.


Aggregate Economic Fluctuations and Regional Convergence

Year Published: 1999

Authors: Sari Pekkala Kerr, Alanen A., Eskelinen H., Monnesland J., Susiluoto I. and Tervo H.

Source: Structures and Prospects of Nordic Regional Economies


An internet-based adolescent depression preventive intervention: study protocol for a randomized control trial

Year Published: 2015

Authors: Tracy G Gladstone, Monika Marko-Holguin, Phyllis Rothberg, Jennifer Nidetz, Anne Diehl, Daniela T DeFrino, Mary Harris, Eumene Ching, Milton Eder, Jason Canel, Carl Bell, William R Beardslee, C Hendricks Brown, Kathleen Griffiths and Benjamin W Van Voorhees

Source: Trials Journal


Be Careful Who You Friend: Early Adolescents' Reports of Safety, Privacy, and Family Monitoring of Facebook Use

Year: 2014

Authors: Charmaraman, L., & Grossman, J.

Source: Journal of Youth Development: Bridging research and practice, 9(1), 86-112

Boston Quality Inventory 2010: Community Early Care and Education Programs.

Year Published: 2010

Author: Marshall, N.L., Dennehy, J., Robeson, W.W. & Roberts, J.

Source: Wellesley Centers for Women, Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA.


Boston Quality Inventory 2013: Community Early Care and Education Programs

Year Published: 2013

Author: Marshall, N.L., Robeson, W.W., & Roberts, J.

Source: Wellesley Centers for Women, Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA, available at: Boston EQUIP


Building an Infrastructure for Quality: An Inventory of Early Childhood Education and Out-of-School Time Facilities in Massachusetts

Year Published: 2011

Author: Children's Investment Fund

Source: Wellesley Centers for Women & On-Site Insight. Report to The Children’s Investment Fund, available at: Wellesley Centers for Women


Building Professional Development for Urban Public Preschools: Experiences and Reflections.

Year Published: 2011

Authors: Roberts, J.R. & Love, M.L.

Source: The Early Childhood Educator Professional Development Grant Research and Practice (Advances in Early Education and Day Care). John A. Sutterby (Ed.) Bingley, UK: Emerald.

ISBN: 0857242806

Can Sex Education Delay Early Sexual Debut?

Year: 2012

Authors: Erkut, S., Grossman, J. M., Frye, A., Ceder, I., Charmaraman, L., Tracy, A.

Source: Journal of Early Adolescence, 33(4), 482-497

Abstract: In this study, we examine whether a nine-lesson sex education intervention, "Get Real: Comprehensive Sex Education That Works," implemented in sixth grade, can reduce the number of adolescents who might otherwise become "early starters" of sexual activity (defined as heterosexual intercourse) by seventh grade. Participants were 548 boys and 675 girls who completed surveys in both sixth grade (baseline) and seventh grade (follow-up). The sample was 35% Latino, 32% Black, 24% White, 3% Asian, and 6% biracial. Students randomly assigned to the control condition were 30% more likely to initiate sex by follow-up when controlling for having had sex by sixth grade, demographic variables, and a tendency to give socially desirable responses. This finding is noteworthy because previous research has identified early starters to be prone to poor outcomes in sexual health, family formation, economic security, and incarceration and few middle school interventions have shown an effect on behavioral outcomes.

DOI: 10.1177/0272431612449386

Changing Policy to Achieve Equity for Infants and Toddlers

Year Published: 2015

Authors: M.V. Mayoral, Pedro Noguera, Aisha Ray, Layli Maparyan, Lauren Hogan

Source: Zero to Three


Harvard Business School Case Study N-817-126
CIC: Catalyzing Entrepreneurial Ecosystems (A)

Year Published: 2017

Author: Sari Pekkala Kerr, William R. Kerr and Alexis Brownell.

Source: Harvard Business Review

We study the impact of skilled immigrants on the employment structures of US firms using matched employer-employee data. Unlike most previous work, we use the firm as the lens of analysis to account for greater heterogeneity and the fact that many skilled immigrant admissions are driven by firms themselves(e.g., the H-1B visa). OLS and IV specifications show rising overall employment of skilled workers with increased skilled immigrant employment by the firm. Employment expansion is greater for young natives than for their older counterparts. The departure rates for older workers relative to younger workers appear highest for those in STEM occupations.


Harvard Business School Case Study N-817-127
CIC: Catalyzing Entrepreneurial Ecosystems (B)

Year Published: 2017

Author: Sari Pekkala Kerr, William R. Kerr and Alexis Brownell.

Source: Harvard Business Review

CIC engages in "guerrilla warfare," offering free or highly discounted rates in order to get its empty offices filled before the opening day of its St. Louis branch. Opening day is a huge success, and CIC St. Louis grows rapidly, even opening a second building. In the following years, it ramps up its expansion efforts and opens new branches or begins the expansion process in multiple cities around the country and the world, as well as expanding its Boston/Cambridge offerings and beginning the expansion process in new cities. CIC is now considering how to improve their expansion operations, while also trying to figure out how fast they should be moving.


Community College Proposal Not Enough to Transform OST Field

Year Published: 2015

Author: Ellen Gannett, M.Ed.

Source: Community College Proposal Not Enough to Transform OST Field


Comparing Sexuality Communication Among Offspring of Teen Parents and Adult Parents: a Different Role for Extended Family

Year Published: 2015

Authors: Jennifer M. Grossman, Allison J. Tracy, Amanda M. Richer, Sumru Erkut

Source: Sexuality Research and Social Policy


Congregating to create for social change: Urban youth media production and sense of community

Year: 2013

Authors: Charmaraman, L.

Source: Learning, Media, & Technology, 38(1), 102-115.

Abstract: This case study explored how adolescents were empowered through after school media production activities and, in the process, re-imagined themselves as active and engaged citizens within their community. Through analyzing interviews, participant observations, and media artifacts of 14 participants (aged 15-19) over a period of 18 months, three main themes emerged from the triangulation of data: (1) sociocultural capital through group ownership; (2) safe space for creative expression; and (3) developing a sense of community with diverse voices. These young people exercised their collective voice toward pro-social actions by writing and producing their stories and showcasing their works at community screenings. They hoped that their videos would promote individual and community transformations. Building on youth development, community psychology, and media literacy frameworks, this article discusses educational implications like advocating for the power of youth media production to bridge participants' personal and private artistry to public and political statements.

DOI: 10.1080/17439884.2011.621956

Constructing Profiles of Religious Agreement and Disagreement Between Adolescents and Mothers: A Research Note

Year Published: 2012

Authors: Noonan, A.E., Tracy, A.J., & Grossman, J.

Source: Review of Religious Research

Abstract: This research note describes the use of latent class analysis to examine how three dimensions of religiosity—the importance of religion (religious salience), attendance at religious services, and frequency of prayer—cluster together to form unique profiles. Building upon recent research identifying different profiles of religiosity at the level of the individual, we used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to identify dyadic profiles of religious concordance or discordance between 14,202 adolescents and their mothers. We identified five profiles: one concordant (27% of sample), two discordant (25% of sample), and two of mixed concordance/discordance (49%). The profiles distinguish between various levels of adolescent/mother relations, suggesting that they may represent distinct family dynamics. They also distinguish between several variables (race, adolescent age, geographical region) in predictable ways, providing additional demonstration of the categories’ meaningfulness.

ISSN: 2211-4866 (online) / 0034-673X (print)

DOI: 10.1007/s13644-012-0053-6

Credentialing for Youth Work: Expanding Our Thinking

Year Published: 2016

Author: Ellen Gannett, M.Ed. and Elizabeth Starr, M.Ed.

Source: The Changing Landscape of Youth Work: Theory and Practice for an Evolving Field

The book compiles and publicizes the best current thinking about training and professional development for youth workers. This volume is part of the series, Adolescence and Education (Series Editor: Ben Kirshner, University of Colorado Boulder), published by Information Age Publishing.


Development and evaluation of a web-based clinician training program for a family-focused depression preventive intervention

Year Published: 2016

Author: Tracy Gladstone, Ph.D. and Elizabeth Starr, M.Ed.

Source: Journal of Technology in Human Services

This study evaluated the acceptability, feasibility, and satisfaction associated with a newly developed online clinician training program for the Family Talk preventive intervention, both alone and together with a redesigned, shortened, face-to-face component. Fifty-eight predominately in-home therapy clinicians participated in the study. Results indicated that clinician participants found the online training to be enjoyable and comprehensive, and they reported that the most beneficial training package involved the combination of web-based and in-person training. This combined training could efficiently cover necessary didactic material online while also delivering important clinical skill practice and in-person discussion. Exceptions, limitations, and important future research questions are discussed.


Development of a technology-based behavioral vaccine to prevent adolescent depression: A health system integration model

Year Published: 2015

Authors: Benjamin W. Van Voorhees, Tracy Gladstone, Stephanie Cordel, Monika Marko-Holguin, William Beardslee, Sachiko Kuwabara, Mark Allan Kaplan, Joshua Fogel, Anne Diehl, Chris Hansen, Carl Bell

Source: Internet Intervention


Developmental risk of depression: Experience matters

Year Published: 2012

Authors: Beardslee, W.R., Gladstone, T.R.G., & O’Connor, E.E.

Source: Psychiatric Clinics of North America

DOI: 10.1016/j.chc.2011.12.001

Differentiable attitudes towards specific crimes and contexts: A quantification of neutralization techniques

Year Published: 2016

Author: Linda M. Williams, Ph.D.

Source: Polish Journal of Social Rehabilitation


Digital Life and Youth Well-being, Social Connectedness, Empathy, and Narcissism

Year Published: 2017

Authors: Linda Charmaraman, Carrie James, Katie Davis, Sara Konrath, Petr Slovak, Emily Weinstein, Lana Yarosh

Source: Pediatrics


Youth well-being, social connectedness, and personality traits, such as empathy and narcissism, are at the crux of concerns often raised about the impacts of digital life. Understanding known impacts, and research gaps, in these areas is an important first step toward supporting media use that contributes positively to youth’s happiness, life satisfaction, and prosocial attitudes and behaviors. By examining existing work addressing these issues across domains, we found that a complex interplay of individual factors, type of digital media engagement, and experiences in media contexts informs outcomes related to well-being, social connectedness, empathy, and narcissism. We argue that further research is needed to uncover how, where, when, and for whom digital media practices support positive well-being and social connectedness outcomes. Specifically, research needs to move beyond correlational studies to uncover causal connections between traits like narcissism and media use. Longitudinal studies are also needed to explore patterns of media use over time and related impacts. Further research is needed to explore how specific technologies can be designed to support positive well-being, social outcomes, and prosocial personality traits. Finally, research is needed regarding parenting, educational practices, and policies that support positive digital media use and related outcomes. Although existing research suggests that digital life has mixed potentials and effects for well-being, social connectedness, empathy, and narcissism, we provide recommendations for clinicians, policy makers, and educators in partnering with caregivers and youth to support media use that promotes positive outcomes in these areas.


Download now >>

Distal and Proximal Religiosity as Protective Factors for Adolescent and Emerging Adult Alcohol Use

Year Published: 2015

Authors: Michelle V. Porche, Lisa R. Fortuna, Amy Wachholtz, and Rosalie Torres Stone

Source: Religions


Do as I say, not as I did: How parents talk with teens about sex

Year: 2012

Authors: Grossman, J., Charmaraman, L., & Erkut, S.

Source: Journal of Family Issues

Abstract: Communication between parents and teens about sexuality can reduce early sexual behavior. However, little research investigates how parents who were adolescents when they had children (early parents) talk with their teens about sex. In-depth interviews were conducted with a racially/ethnically diverse sample of 29 parents of seventh graders. Salient themes of conversations with adolescents were risks of early parenthood, sexually transmitted infections, delaying sex, and using protection. Compared with parents who were older when they had children (later parents), early parents were more likely to report having had negative sexuality communications with their families of origin and to express a wish to communicate differently with their own children. Early parents were more likely than later parents to discuss risks of early parenthood and to rely on extended family involvement in sexuality communication. Findings suggest that early parents may bring unique perspectives that enable them to approach sexuality communication differently than do later parents.

DOI: 10.1177/0192513X13511955

Do Schools Normalize Sexual Harassment?

Year Published: 2017

Authors: Nan Stein, Ed. D. and Katia Gillander Gadin

Source: Gender and Education

Sexual harassment has become so frequent and ubiquitous in schools that these behaviours have become normalised and expected. In order to prevent the re-enactment and perpetuation of this problem, it is important to explore processes that contribute to its existence. A high school sexual harassment lawsuit in Sweden is used as a case study to illustrate ways that might explain how sexual harassment is normalised at the organisational level. A thematic analysis has been used to identify themes and subthemes. The results show a multi-layered web of factors and practices related to sexual harassment at the organisational level in the school. In order to change a school’s culture from one where sexual harassment is normalised, multiple needs must be addressed: organisational weaknesses must be strengthened; adults enact their responsibility to change the situation; and awareness of the relationship between sexual harassment, gender, and power needs to be increased.

Download citation>> Here

Economic Impacts of Immigration: A Survey

Year Published: 2011

Authors: Kerr W. and Pekkala Kerr S.

Source: Finnish Economic Papers, Vol. 24, 2011

Abstract: An intergenerational model is developed, nesting heritable earning abilities and credit constraints limiting human capital investments in children. Estimates on a large, Finnish data panel indicate very low transmission from parental earnings, suggesting that the parameter of inherited earning ability is tiny. Family income, particularly during the phase of educating children, is shown to be much more important in shaping children’s lifetime earnings. This influence of parental incomes on children’s earnings rises as the children age because the returns to education rise. Despite Finland’s well-developed welfare state, persistence in economic status across generations is much higher than previously thought.

DOI: 10.3386/w16736

Education and the Economic and Social Mobility in Finland

Year Published: 2012

Authors: Sari Pekkala Kerr, Kettunen P. ja Simola H., Risto Rinne

Source: The History of Finnish Education


Education Expenditures in Finland: The 20th Century and The Future.

Year Published: 2005

Author: Sari Pekkala Kerr, N. Intonen and M-L. Järviö

Source: Government Institute for Economic Research


Effect of a Cognitive-Behavioral Prevention Program on Depression 6 Years After Implementation Among At-Risk Adolescents A Randomized Clinical Trial

Year Published: 2015

Authors: David A. Brent, MD; Steven M. Brunwasser, PhD; Steven D. Hollon, PhD; V. Robin Weersing, PhD; Gregory N. Clarke, PhD; John F. Dickerson, PhD; William R. Beardslee, MD; Tracy R. G. Gladstone, PhD; Giovanna Porta, MS; Frances L. Lynch, PhD; Satish Iyengar, PhD; Judy Garber, PhD

Source: JAMA Psychiatry


Emergence of Communication: Words, Grammar and First Conversations

Authors: Robeson, W.W. & McCartney, K.

Year Published: 1992

Source: J.R. Lally, P.L. Mangione, & L.L. Young-Holt (Eds.), Revised Infant Toddler guide to language development and communication. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Education.

Employment and Women's Health

Year Published: 2013

Author: Marshall, N.L.

Source: In M.V. Spiers, P.A. Geller & J.D. Kloss (Eds.), Women's Health Psychology (46-63),  Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons

ISSN: 978-0-470-89066-0


Entrepreneurship and Urban Growth: An Empirical Assessment with Historical Mines

Year Published: Forthcoming

Author: Sari Pekkala Kerr, E. Glaeser and W.R. Kerr.

Source: The National Bureau of Economic Research

Measures of entrepreneurship, such as average establishment size and the prevalence of start-ups, correlate strongly with employment growth across and within metropolitan areas, but the endogeneity of these measures bedevils interpretation. Chinitz (1961) hypothesized that coal mines near Pittsburgh led that city to specialization in industries, like steel, with significant scale economies and that those big firms led to a dearth of entrepreneurial human capital across several generations. We test this idea by looking at the spatial location of past mines across the United States: proximity to historical mining deposits is associated with bigger firms and fewer start-ups in the middle of the 20th century. We use mines as an instrument for our entrepreneurship measures and find a persistent link between entrepreneurship and city employment growth; this connection works primarily through lower employment growth of start-ups in cities that are closer to mines. These effects hold in cold and warm regions alike and in industries that are not directly related to mining, such as trade, finance and services. We use quantile instrumental variable regression techniques and identify mostly homogeneous effects throughout the conditional city growth distribution.


Download now >>

Escaping from Worries or Facing Reality: A Survey Study of Adolescent Attitudes about Sexist and Homophobic Stereotypes in Mainstream US Media

Year Published: 2017

Authors: Linda Charmaraman, Amanda Richer, Brianna Ruffin, Budnampet Ramanudom and Katie Madsen

Source: Nordicom

We examined the influences of being exposed to gender and sexual orientation stereotypes in the media on US-based adolescents aged 12-18. Departing from wishful identification theory, our study allows adolescents to report how TV characters resemble them, rather than whom they emulate, coming from a place of agency. We recruited 639 participants (85% female, 82% heterosexual) to take an online survey. Our findings demonstrated that girls and sexual minorities were less likely to see their gender and sexual orientation reflected in favorite TV characters. Girls and sexual minorities felt more personally affected by stereotypes about women and girls and were more likely to believe that sexism and homophobia needed to be addressed in the media. Across all groups, those who tend to escape their worries through watching television reported feeling more upset at TV content and being more personally affected by negative stereotypes centered on women, girls, and sexual minorities.


Download now >>

Extending the Knapsack: Using the White Privilege Analysis to Examine Conferred Advantage and Disadvantage

Year Published: 2015

Authors: Peggy McIntosh

Source: Women in Therapy


Facilities Inventory Project: Boston Report

Year Published: 2011

Author: Marshall, N.L., Robeson, W.W., Hall, G., Tomasetti, S & Hutchinson, B.

Source: Wellesley Centers for Women & On-Site Insight. Report to The Children’s Investment Fund


Facilities Inventory Project: Data Report

Year Published: 2011

Author: Marshall, N.L., Robeson, W.W., Hall, G., Tomasetti, S & Hutchinson, B., Tomasetti, S. & Hutchinson, B.

Source: Wellesley Centers for Women & On-Site Insight. Report to The Children’s Investment Fund


Family Homework and School-Based Sex Education: Delaying Early Adolescents' Sexual Behavior

Year: 2013

Authors: Grossman, J. M., Frye, A., Charmaraman, L., & Erkut, S.

Source: Journal of School Health, 83(11), 810-817

Abstract: Early sexual activity can undermine adolescents' future school success and health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of a family homework component of a comprehensive sex education intervention in delaying sexual initiation for early adolescents and to explore what social and contextual factors prevent adolescents from completing these family homework activities. This mixed methods study included 6th- and 7th-grade survey responses from 706 students at 11 middle school schools receiving a sex education intervention, as well as interviews from a subset of 33, 7th-grade students from the larger sample. Adolescents who completed more family homework assignments were less likely to have vaginal intercourse in 7th grade than those who completed fewer assignments, after controlling for self-reports of having had vaginal intercourse in 6th grade and demographic variables. Participants' explanations for not completing assignments included personal, curriculum, and family-based reasons.
Family homework activities designed to increase family communication about sexual issues can delay sex among early adolescents and contribute to school-based sex education programs. Successful sex education programs must identify and address barriers to family homework completion.

DOI: 10.1111/josh.12098

Firms and the Economics of Skilled Immigration

Year Published: 2015

Authors: Sari Pekkala Kerr, Kerr W., Lerner J., Stern S., Lincoln, W.

Source: Innovation Policy and the Economy

Firms play a central role in the selection, sponsorship, and employment of skilled immigrants entering the United States for work through programs like the H-1B visa. This role has not been widely recognized in the literature, and the data to better understand it have only recently become available. This chapter discusses the evidence that has been assembled to date in understanding the impact of high-skilled immigration from the perspective of the firm and the open areas that call for more research. Since much of the US immigration process for skilled workers rests in the hands of employer firms, a stronger understanding of these implications is essential for future policy analysis, particularly for issues relating to fostering innovation.


From media propaganda to de-stigmatizing sex: A teen magazine by, for, and about girls

Year: 2013

Authors: Charmaraman, L., & Low, B.

Source: In K. Harper, Y. Katsulis, V. Lopez, and G. S. Gillis (Eds.), Girls’ Sexualities and the Media (pp. 245-261). New York: Peter Lang

Global Collaborative Patents

Year Published: Forthcoming

Author: Sari Pekkala Kerr, D. W.R. Kerr

Source: Harvard Business School

We study the prevalence and traits of global collaborative patents for U.S. public companies, where the inventor team is located both within and outside of the United States. Collaborative patents are frequently observed when a corporation is entering into a new foreign region for innovative work, especially in settings where intellectual property protection is weak. We also connect collaborative patents to the ethnic composition of the firm's U.S. inventors and cross-border mobility of inventors within the firm. The inventor team composition has important consequences for how the new knowledge is exploited within and outside of the firm.


Download now >>

Global Talent Flows

Year Published: 2016

Author: Sari Pekkala Kerr, William Kerr, Çaǧ lar Özden, Christopher Parsons

Source: American Economic Association

The global distribution of talent is highly skewed and the resources available to countries to develop and utilize their best and brightest vary substantially. The migration of skilled workers across countries tilts the deck even further. Using newly available data, we first review the landscape of global talent mobility, which is both asymmetric and rising in importance. We next consider the determinants of global talent flows at the individual and firm levels and sketch some important implications. Third, we review the national gatekeepers for skilled migration and broad differences in approaches used to select migrants for admission. Looking forward, the capacity of people, firms, and countries to successfully navigate this tangled web of global talent will be critical to their success.


Download now >>

Health prevention and promotion

Year Published: 2011

Authors: Beardslee, W.R., & Gladstone, T.R.G.

Source: In R.C. Talley, G.L. Fricchione, B.G. Druss, & R. Martinez (Eds.), Caregiving and mental health. New York: Oxford University Press.

High-Skilled Migration and Agglomeration

Year Published: Forthcoming

Author: Sari Pekkala Kerr, C. Ozden and C. Parsons.

Source: Annual Review of Economics

This paper reviews recent research regarding high-skilled migration. We adopt a data-driven perspective, bringing together and describing several ongoing research streams that range from the construction of global migration databases, to the legal codification of national policies regarding high-skilled migration, to the analysis of patent data regarding cross-border inventor movements. A common theme throughout this research is the importance of agglomeration economies for explaining high-skilled migration. We highlight some key recent findings and outline major gaps that we hope will be tackled in the near future.


Download now >>

Immigration and Employer Transitions for STEM Workers

Year Published: 2013

Authors: Pekkala Kerr S., Kerr W.

Source: American Economic Review, Vol. 103, 2013

Abstract: The firm is almost entirely absent from models of immigration, and yet firms play a central role for high-skilled immigration. The H-1B visa program, for example, is a firm-sponsored entry where firms are responsible for every stage: from identifying the immigrant, to employing them, to filing for permanent residency on behalf of the immigrant. This central role of firms for high-skilled immigration suggests the traditional lens for evaluating the impact of immigration on natives through local area labor markets or national age-education approaches may miss important dynamics. We analyze the employment and wage trajectories of high-skilled workers born in America when a high-skilled immigrant arrives at their work site. We use linked employer-employee data during the 1995-2008 period from the Census Bureau for this exercise, which identifies the immigration status and country-of-birth of workers. We follow the subsequent career path of workers after high-skilled immigration occurs to the employee's work site both within firms (e.g., changes in employee salary, relocation to other sites) and across firms (e.g., movements to new jobs or out of workforce, long-term salary adjustments). The richness and depth of the Census Bureau data allow for multiple comparison points: selection on observables (e.g., age, tenure, salary levels and recent growth), varying immigration treatments across different work sites for the same firm for otherwise comparable employees, and (for a subset of cases and short time period at the end of our sample) randomization in H-1B admission lotteries.

DOI: 10.1257/aer.103.3.193

Immigration in the 1990s: Employment, Income Taxes, and Income Transfers

Year Published: 2005

Author: Sari Pekkala Kerr, h K. Hämäläinen, A. Kangasharju and M. Sarvimäki

Source: Ministry of Labor, Research Reports on Employment Policy


Importance of Race and Ethnicity: An Exploration of Asian, Black, Latino, and Multiracial Adolescent Identity

Year: 2010

Authors: Charmaraman, L. & Grossman, J.

Source: Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 16(2), 144-151

Abstract: This mixed-method study used a grounded theory approach to explore the meanings underlying the importance that adolescents attach to their racial-ethnic identities. The sample consisted of 923 9th- to 12th-grade students from Black, Latino, Asian, and multiracial backgrounds. Thematic findings identified a broad range of explanations for adolescents' racial-ethnic centrality, ranging from pride and cultural connection to ambivalence and colorblind attitudes. While racial-ethnic groups differed in reported levels of racial-ethnic centrality, few group differences were identified in participants' thematic explanations, with the exception of racial-ethnic and gender differences for Positive Regard and Disengagement. These findings highlight the diversity of meanings that adolescents attribute to their racial-ethnic centrality as well as the many commonalities among adolescents across gender and racial-ethnic groups.

DOI: 10.1037/a0018668

Increasing Understanding in Children of Depressed Parents: Predictors and Moderators of Intervention Response

Year Published: 2015

Authors: Tracy R. G. Gladstone, Peter W. Forbes, Anne Diehl, and William R. Beardslee

Source: Depression Research and Treatment


Intergenerational Income Immobility in Finland: Contrasting Roles for Parental Earnings and Family Income

Year Published: 2012

Authors: Lucas R.E.B and Pekkala Kerr S.

Source: Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 25, 2012

Abstract: An intergenerational model is developed, nesting heritable earning abilities and credit constraints limiting human capital investments in children. Estimates on a large, Finnish data panel indicate very low transmission from parental earnings, suggesting that the parameter of inherited earning ability is tiny. Family income, particularly during the phase of educating children, is shown to be much more important in shaping children’s lifetime earnings. This influence of parental incomes on children’s earnings rises as the children age because the returns to education rise. Despite Finland’s well-developed welfare state, persistence in economic status across generations is much higher than previously thought.

DOI: 10.1007/s00148-012-0442-8

Is It Bullying or Sexual Harassment? Knowledge, Attitudes, and Professional Development Experiences of Middle School Staff

Year: 2013

Authors: Charmaraman, L., Jones, A., Stein, N. & Espelage, D.

Source: Journal of School Health, 83(6), 438-444

Abstract: This study fills a gap in the literature by examining how school staff members view bullying and sexual harassment and their role in preventing both. Given recent legislation, increasingly more attention is paid to bully prevention; however, student-on-student sexual harassment is less addressed. Four focus groups were conducted with 32 staff members from 4 midwestern public middle schools. Questions assessed professional development opportunities on bullying and sexual harassment prevention/intervention, personal definitions of these behaviors, and their perceptions of school norms regarding such behavior. Staff members recalled receiving more professional development on bullying than sexual harassment. They tended to define sexual harassment as something that occurs between adults and/or adults and students and did perceive their role in enforcing a "sexual harassment-free" peer-to-peer school zone. When school administrators fail to provide professional development on both bullying and sexual harassment, staff members do not understand that sexual harassment occurs between students. Thus, they are unaware of policies to protect students from harmful experiences in educational settings and are not likely to understand their own role in preventing them.

DOI: 10.1111/josh.12048

“Is Little Brother Nothing but Trouble? Educational Attainment, Returns to Schooling and Sibling Structure

Year Published: 2003

Author: Sari Pekkala Kerr

Source: Government Institute for Economic Research

Family effects on an individual's labor market success have been studied by economists and sociologists. The consensus is that background matters to educational and labor market performance, but it is not clear how and why. I look at indicators of family background and sibling structure, analyzing their effect on educational attainment and earnings. Parental income, schooling and other characteristics are amongst the main determinants of schooling. Also, sibling structure and density affect education, but have no effect on earnings. Sibling density and sex composition are tested as instruments for schooling. With the IV-strategy, estimated return to schooling decreases from 9 to 7 percent for men, but increases to 11-14 percent for women.


It All Just Piles Up: Challenges to Victim Credibility Accumulate to Influence Sexual Assault Case Processing

Year Published: 2016

Author: Melissa Morabito, Ph.D., April Pattavina, Ph.D., and Linda M. Williams, Ph.D.

Source: Journal of Interpersonal Violence

The underreporting of sexual assault is well known to researchers, practitioners, and victims. When victims do report, their complaints are unlikely to end in arrest or prosecution. Existing research on police discretion suggests that the police decision to arrest for sexual assault offenses can be influenced by a variety of legal and extra-legal factors particularly challenges to victim credibility. Although extant literature examines the effects of individual behaviors on police outcomes, less is known about how the accumulation of these behaviors, attributions, and characteristics affects police decision making. Using data collected from the Los Angeles Police Department and Sheriff’s Department, the researchers examine one police decision point—the arrest—to fill this gap in the literature. They examine the extent to which the effects of potential challenges to victim credibility, based on victim characteristics and behaviors, influence the arrest decision, and next, how these predictors vary across circumstances. Specifically, the team examines how factors that challenge victim credibility affect the likelihood of arrest in sexual assault cases where the victim and offender are strangers, acquaintances, and intimate partners.


Keep Moving: The Power of Physical Activity Before School and the Impact on Children, Youth, and Families

Year Published: 2017

Author: Georgia Hall, Ph.D.

Source: Preserving Integrity: The Power of Sport, Spring 2017

Georiga Hall shares data that shows how before-school physical activity programs offer a variety of new physical activity skills, reinforce healthy habits, and emphasize the vocabulary, language, and practices of wellbeing. Before-school physical activity programs may also offer a promising model for how schools, families, and out-of-school programs can work together to increase children’s physical activity and healthy eating, and promote health and wellness within families through the child’s participation.

Measurement Uncertainty in Racial and Ethnic Identification Among Adolescents of Mixed Ancestry: A Latent Variable Approach

Year Published: 2010

Authors: Tracy, A.J., Erkut, S., Porche, M.V., Kim, J., Charmaraman, L., Grossman, J.M., Ceder, I., & Vázquez Garcia, H.

Source: Structural Equation Modeling, 17(1), 11-133. NIHMSID 277208

Abstract: In this article, we operationalize identification of mixed racial and ethnic ancestry among adolescents as a latent variable to (a) account for measurement uncertainty, and (b) compare alternative wording formats for racial and ethnic self-categorization in surveys. Two latent variable models were fit to multiple mixed-ancestry indicator data from 1,738 adolescents in New England. The first, a mixture factor model, accounts for the zero-inflated mixture distribution underlying mixed-ancestry identification. Alternatively, a latent class model allows classification distinction between relatively ambiguous versus unambiguous mixed-ancestry responses. Comparison of individual indicators reveals that the Census 2000 survey version estimates higher prevalence of mixed ancestry but is less sensitive to relative certainty of identification than are alternate survey versions (i.e., offering a “mixed” check box option, allowing a written response). Ease of coding and missing data are also considered in discussing the relative merit of individual mixed-ancestry indicators among adolescents.

DOI: 10.1080/10705510903439094

Measuring Program Quality: Evidence of the scientific validity of the Assessment of Program Practices Tool (APT)

Year Published: 2016

Author: Linda Charmaraman, Ph.D., Allison Tracy, Ph.D., Ineke Ceder, and Amanda Richer

Funded by the William T. Grant Foundation and Virginia B. Toulmin Foundation in two phases, they describe APT’s strengths as an evaluation and program quality measure for out-of-school (OST) programs, a tool that is critical for program directors and policymakers who need to identify where to improve and how to support those improvements within OST programs. In addition, the online, video-based training developed in the second phase to increase reliability of APT raters showed promise, such that the most high priority APT quality areas were found to be the most improved (i.e., most accurate) scores post training.



Migration and Regional Convergence among the Finnish Subregions, 1975–1995.

Year Published: 1998

Author: Sari Pekkala Kerr, A.Kangasharju

Source: Pellervo Economic Research Institute


Migration in a Core-Periphery Model: Analysis of Agglomeration in Regional Growth Centers.

Year Published: 2000

Author: Sari Pekkala Kerr

Source: University of Jyväskylä, School of Business and Economics


Obscuring Gender-Based Violence: Marriage Promotion and Teen Dating Violence Research

Year Published: 2016

Author: Carrie Baker & Nan Stein

Source: "Obscuring Gender-Based Violence:Marriage Promotion and Teen Dating Violence Research", Journal of Women, Politics & Policy, 37:1, 87-109, DOI: 10.1080/1554477X.2016.1116301

ISSN: 1554-4788 (Online)


Parental Leave Legislation and Women's Work: A Story of Unequal Opportunities

Year Published: 2016

Author: Sari Pekkala Kerr

Source: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management

U.S. federal and state family leave legislation requires employers to provide job-protected parental leave for new mothers covered under the legislation. In most casesthe leave is unpaid, and rarely longer than 12 weeks in duration. This study evalu-ates disparities in parental leave eligibility, access, and usage across the family incomedistribution in the United States. It also describes the links between leave-taking andwomen’s labor market careers. The focus is especially on low-income families, as theirleave coverage and ability to afford taking unpaid leave is particularly poor. This studyshows that the introduction of both state and federal legislation increased overall leavecoverage, leave provision, and leave-taking. For example, the Family and Medical LeaveAct (FMLA) leads to an increased probability of leave-taking by nearly 20 percentagepoints and increased average leave length by almost five weeks across all states. Thenew policies did not, however, reduce gaps between low- and high-income families’eligibility, leave-taking, or leave length. In addition, the FMLA effects on leave-takingwere very similar across states with and without prior leave legislation, and the FMLAdid not disproportionately increase leave-taking for women who worked in firms andjobs covered by the new legislation, as these women were already relatively well coveredby other parental leave arrangements.


Perceived Gender and Racial/Ethnic Barriers to STEM Success

Authors: Grossman, J.M. & Porche, M.V.

Year Published: 2013

Source: Urban Education.

Planning in Middle Childhood: Early Predictors and Later Outcomes

Year Published: 2014

Authors: Friedman, S.L., Scholnick, E.K., Bender, R.H., Vandergrift, N., Spieker, S., Hirsh Pasek, K., Keating, D.P., Park, Y. and the NICHD Early Child Care Research Network*
* Marshall is a member of the NICHD ECCRN

Source: Child Development, July 2014, Vol. 85 Issue 4, p. 1446-1460

Abstract: Data from 1,364 children and families who participated in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were analyzed to track the early correlates and later academic outcomes of planning during middle childhood. Maternal education, through its effect on parenting quality when children were 54 months old, predicts their concurrent performance on sustained attention, inhibition, and short-term verbal memory tests. This performance predicts planning in first grade, which predicts third-grade reading and mathematics attainment, but not the rate of growth in academic skills from first to fifth grades. This path was also found when the same parenting, cognitive, and academic constructs were measured at later time points.

ISSN: 0009-3920

DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12221

Police and domestic sex trafficking of youth: What teens tell us that can aid prevention and interdiction

Year Published: 2015

Author: Linda M. Williams, Ph.D.

Source: Journal of Crime and Justice

Juveniles are more likely to come into contact with the criminal or juvenile justice systems in the U.S. as victims than as offenders. Yet, except in the case of child victims of sexual abuse at hands of a family member, juveniles as victims still receive little attention in the criminal justice literature. And, for the most part, the actors in the justice system in the U.S. have not been given the skills, tools, and resources to effectively deal with juveniles, especially teenaged youth, as victims. Furthermore, policing of domestic sex trafficking of youth has focused on police response at later stages of sex trafficking (when such a crime is clearly identified) and the role of the police in coordinated response teams and building cases against the perpetrators including ‘pimps.’ This article offers evidence from research on commercial sexual exploitation of adolescents to examine police interactions with youth who are at a high risk for or on the pathway into domestic sex trafficking, and identifies prevention and interdiction strategies. Notably, these strategies reflect the connection of police responses to domestic violence, youth status offenses, and homeless teens.


Post-Secondary Education and Information on Labor Market Prospects: A Randomized Field Experiment

Year Published: 2015

Authors: Sari Pekkala Kerr, Tuomas Pekkarinen, Matti Sarvimaki, Roope Uusitalo

Source: Post-Secondary Education and Information on Labor Market Prospects: A Randomized Field Experiment


Practices and Approaches of Out-of-School Time Programs Serving Immigrant and Refugee Youth

Year Published: 2015

Authors: Georgia Hall, Michelle Porche, Jennifer Grossman, and Sviatlana Smashnaya

Source: Journal of Youth Development


Prevention of Depression in At-Risk Adolescents: Predictors and Moderators of Acute Effects

Year Published: 2016

Author: Weersing, V.R., Shamseddeen, W., Garber, J., Hollon, S.D., Clarke, G.N., Beardslee, W.R., Gladstone, T.R., Lynch, F.L., Porta, G., Iyengar, S. and Brent, D.A.

Source:  "Prevention of Depression in At-Risk Adolescents: Predictors and Moderators of Acute Effects", Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Volume 55, Issue 3.


Preventive interventions for children of parents with depression: International perspectives

Year Published: 2012

Authors: Beardslee, W.R., Solantaus, T., Morgan, B., Gladstone, T., & Kowalenko, N.

Source: Medical Journal of Australia

Program Development

Year Published: 2016

Author: Georgia Hall, Ph.D.

Source: SAGE Encyclopedia of Out-of-School Learning

Examines components of OST programs such as staffing, leadership, communication, planning, physical and financial resources, family and school relations, and programming, which can vary in quality but collectively contribute to the delivery of experiences to children and youth. They should be well run and organized with a central focus on promoting the healthy and positive development of children and youth.


Program Facility Standards for Early Care and Education & Out-of-School-Time Programs

Year Published: 2011

Author: Pardee, M., Cowden, M.M., Robeson, W.W., Marshall, N.L., Hall, G., Tomasetti, S. & Hutchinson, B.

Source: The Children’s Investment Fund


Protective Effects of Middle School Comprehensive Sex Education With Family Involvement

Year: 2014

Authors: Grossman, J., Tracy, A., Charmaraman, L., & Erkut, S.

Source: Journal of School Health, 84, 739-747

Abstract: School-based comprehensive sex education programs can reduce early adolescents' risky sexual behavior. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 3-year comprehensive sex education program in delaying vaginal sex for middle school students and whether the family component of the intervention contributes to its effectiveness.METHODS This longitudinal evaluation followed a cohort of 6th graders (N = 2453) through the end of 8th grade. The design used random assignment of 24 schools into treatment and comparison conditions. The analysis included multiple-group logistic regression to assess differences in delay of sex between intervention and comparison groups.RESULTSIn schools where the program was taught, 16% fewer boys and 15% fewer girls had had sex by the end of 8th grade compared to boys and girls at comparison schools. Completing family activities during the first year of the program predicted delayed sexual debut for boys.CONCLUSIONS Theory-based, developmentally appropriate, comprehensive sex education programs that include parent involvement can be effective in delaying vaginal sex for middle school students. Parent involvement is particularly important for boys, as family activities may encourage parents to talk with their sons earlier and more frequently.

DOI: 10.1111/josh.12199

Realizing Personal and Systemic Privilege: Reflection Becoming Action

Year Published: 2015

Authors: Peggy McIntosh

Source: Everyday White People Confront Racial and Social Injustice


Reducing Health Disparities for Hispanic Children with Special Health Care Needs

Year Published: 2013

Author: Palfrey, J., Rosen-Reynoso, M., Ogilus, N., Foley, S.

Source: National Center for Community-Based Services


Regional Economic Repercussions of an Economic Crisis: A Sectoral Analysis

Year Published: 2001

Author: Sari Pekkala Kerr, A. Kangasharju

Source: Regional Economic Repercussions of an Economic Crisis: A Sectoral Analysis

This paper investigates the evolution of regional disparities in Finland between 1988 and 1997. The analysis focuses on per capita GDP and its subcomponents, particularly labour productivity, jobs and population. The results show, first, that the evolution of labour productivity and the number of jobs account for the emerged regional divergence of per capita GDP during 1990-1995. Second, even though inter-regional migration tends to have convergent effects on regional per capita GDP, its effect was not strong enough during 1990-1995: the divergence of productivity and jobs dominated. Third, among divergent factors (productivity and jobs), manufacturing contributes the most to the divergence of per capita GDP, whereas private services is the main convergent sector. One conclusion of the paper is that the divergent forces are gaining strength at the expense of convergent ones, as migration directs population into largest regional centres. A decline in convergent factors may occur as migration decreases the need for private sector jobs outside the centres.


Regional Housing Market Forecast

Year Published: 2002

Author: Sari Pekkala Kerr, J. Huovari , S. Laakso and J. Luoto

Source: Economic Research Institute


Regional Migration and Disparities: Evidence from Finland, 1975-95

Year Published: 1999

Author: Sari Pekkala Kerr

Source: University of Jyväskylä, School of Business and Economics


School dropout prevention: What arts-based community and out-of-school time programs can contribute

Year: 2011

Authors: Charmaraman, L. Hall, G.

Source: New Directions for Youth Development, S1, 9-27

Abstract: Out-of-school-time programs, especially arts-based programs, can be critical players in a community's efforts to prevent school dropout. This research review suggests the following approaches for arts-based programs: (1) recruitment and retention of target populations with multiple risk factors; (2) long-term skill development that engages youth behaviorally, emotionally, and academically rather than a drop-in culture; (3) an emphasis on the critical ingredient of real-world applications through performance; (4) staff development and mentoring; (5) a strategic community-level plan for dropout prevention; (6) and program content reframed toward competencies that underlie better school performance and prosocial behavior, such as communication, initiative, problem solving, motivation, and self-efficacy.

DOI: 10.1002/yd.416

School Tracking and Development of Cognitive Skills

Year Published: 2013

Authors: Kerr S., Pekkarinen T., and Uusitalo R.

Source: Journal of Labor Economics, Vol. 31 (no. 3)

Abstract: We evaluate the effects of the school system on mathematical, verbal, and logical reasoning skills using data from the Finnish comprehensive school reform that abolished the two-track school system. We use a difference-in-differences approach that exploits the gradual implementation across the country. Cognitive skills are measured using test scores from the Finnish Army Basic Skills Test. The reform had small positive effects on verbal test scores but no effect on the mean performance in the arithmetic or logical reasoning tests. However, the reform significantly improved the scores of the students whose parents had less than a high school education.

DOI: 10.1086/669493

Skilled Immigration and the Employment Structures of U.S. Firms

Year Published: 2015

Author: Sari Pekkala Kerr, W.R. Kerr and W. Lincoln.

Source: Journal of Labor Economics

We study the impact of skilled immigrants on the employment structures of US firms using matched employer-employee data. Unlike most previous work, we use the firm as the lens of analysis to account for greater heterogeneity and the fact that many skilled immigrant admissions are driven by firms themselves(e.g., the H-1B visa). OLS and IV specifications show rising overall employment of skilled workers with increased skilled immigrant employment by the firm. Employment expansion is greater for young natives than for their older counterparts. The departure rates for older workers relative to younger workers appear highest for those in STEM occupations.


Download now >>

Stages of Change and the Group Treatment of Batterers: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Year Published: 2010

Authors: Alexander, P.C., Morris, E., Tracy, A., & Frye, A.

Source: Violence and Victims, 25(5), 571-587.

Abstract: A stages-of-change motivational interviewing (SOCMI) treatment approach was compared with a standard cognitive behavioral therapy gender reeducation (CBTGR) approach in a sample of 528 English-speaking and Spanish-speaking male batterers who were randomly assigned to 49 26-week groups in either condition. Blind ratings of therapist adherence differentiated the two conditions. Language spoken neither predicted outcome nor interacted with treatment. The SOCMI curriculum led to significant reductions in female partners' reports of physical aggression at follow-up, but not to changes in self-reported aggression. Men who were initially less ready to change benefited more from the SOCMI approach while men who were more ready to change benefited more from the CBTGR approach. Results suggest the importance of tailoring abuser intervention programs to individuals' initial readiness to change.

DOI: 10.1891/0886-6708.25.5.571

Strengthening At Risk and Homeless Young Mothers and Children: Cross-Site Evaluation of the Strengthening At Risk and Homeless Young Mothers and Children Initiative 2012

Year Published: 2012

Author: The National Center on Family Homelessness, with Marshall, N.L.

Source: The National Center on Family Homelessness, available at: American Institutes for Research


Subsidized child care, maternal employment and access to quality, affordable child care

Year Published: 2013

Author: Marshall, N.L., Robeson, W.W., Tracy, A.J., Frye, A., & Roberts, J.

Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 28, 808–819.

Abstract: To examine whether state child care subsidy policies can combine goals of increasing maternal employment and increasing access to quality child care for children in low-income families, we studied one state's comprehensive policy, through a cross-sectional survey of 665 randomly selected families using centers, Head Starts, family child care homes, public school preschools or informal care, including a sample of families on the waitlist for child care subsidies. We found that, in Massachusetts, families receiving child care subsidies report greater access to child care, more affordable child care, and higher quality child care, than do similar families not receiving subsidies. Lower-income families not receiving subsidies can sometimes access affordable, quality child care through Head Start programs and public preschools, but, when they have to pay for care, they pay a significantly greater proportion of their income than do families receiving subsidies. We also found that families on the subsidy waitlist are at a particular disadvantage. Waitlist families have the greatest difficulty paying for care, the least access, and the poorest quality child care. While the child care subsidy policies benefited those families receiving subsidies, families outside the system still struggled to find and afford child care.

ISSN: 0885-2006


Summer Learning

Year Published: 2016

Author: Georgia Hall, Ph.D.

Source: SAGE Encyclopedia of Out-of-School Learning

Focuses on out-of-school time (OST) programs where children and youth have the opportunity to build supportive relationships, test out new skills, gain valuable peer relationship experiences, and build social and emotional learning skills while supporting children’s wellness and continued learning while school is not in session.


Teacher Self-knowledge: The Deeper Learning

Year Published: 2015

Authors: Peggy McIntosh

Source: Independent School


The Dynamics of Gender Earnings Differentials: Evidence from Establishment Data

Year Published: 2017

Author: Sari Pekkala Kerr, Erling Barth and Claudia Olivetti.

Source: The National Bureau of Economic Research

We use a unique match between the 2000 Decennial Census of the United States and the Longitudinal Employer Household Dynamics (LEHD) data to analyze how much of the increase in the gender earnings gap over the lifecycle comes from shifts in the sorting of men and women across high- and low-pay establishments and how much is due to differential earnings growth within establishments. We find that for the college educated the increase is substantial and, for the most part, due to differential earnings growth within establishment by gender. The between component is also important. Differential mobility between establishments by gender can explain 27 percent of the widening of the pay gap for this group. For those with no college, the, relatively small, increase of the gender gap over the lifecycle can be fully explained by differential moves by gender across establishments. The evidence suggests that, for both education groups, the between-establishment component of the increasing wage gap is due almost entirely to those who are married.


The Economics of Education in Finland – A Historical Perspective

Year Published: 2012

Authors: Sari Pekkala Kerr, Kettunen P. ja Simola H.

Source: The History of Finnish Education


The Effect of Work First Job Placements on the Distribution of Earnings: An Instrumental Variable Quantile Regression Approach

Year Published: 2017

Author: Sari Pekkala Kerr, D. Autor, S. Houseman

Source: The National Bureau of Economic Research

Federal and state employment programs for low-skilled workers typically emphasize rapid placement of participants into jobs and often place a large fraction of participants into temporary-help agency jobs. Using unique administrative data from Detroit's welfare-to-work program, we apply the Chernozhukov-Hansen instrumental variables quantile regression (IVQR) method to estimate the causal effects of welfare-to-work job placements on the distribution of participants' earnings. We find that neither direct-hire nor temporary-help job placements significantly affect the lower tail of the earnings distribution. Direct-hire placements, however, substantially raise the upper tail, yielding sizable earnings increases for more than fifty percent of participants over the medium-term (one to two years following placement). Conversely, temporary-help placements have zero or negative earnings impacts at all quantiles, and these effects are economically large and significant at higher quantiles. In net, we find that the widespread practice of placing disadvantaged workers into temporary-help jobs is an ineffective tool for improving earnings and, moreover, that programs focused solely on job placement fail to improve earnings among those who are hardest to serve. Methodologically, one surprising result is that a reduced-form quantile IV approach, akin to two-step instrumental variables, produces near-identical point estimates to the structural IVQR approach, which is based on much stronger assumptions.


Download now >>