Harvard Business Review

The barriers that keep women out of leadership roles have been well documented. And they're persistent - increases in women's share of leadership over time have been in the single digits. In fields with long or unpredictable schedules, with schedules that professionals can't control, or with extensive travel, women's representation in leadership is even lower.

The Collaborative Language and Literacy Instruction Project (CLLIP) is a model of professional development designed to help teachers incorporate research-based practices of literacy instruction, support mastery, and sustained use of these practices through coaching, and serve as a foundation for whole-school reform efforts. We describe the model, intervention, implementation, and subsequent results from an exploratory study in which we tested student literacy outcomes for kindergartners and fourth graders in the classrooms of CLLIP teachers against a matched comparison group. Exploratory results from a rural cohort of elementary school teachers suggest support for skill building in the alphabetic principle, phonemic awareness, fluency, and vocabulary. We discuss outcomes by reflecting on central program features: CLLIP strengthens teachers' content knowledge and ties that knowledge to subject-specific content for students, has extended duration and support, is tied to state standards, and involves collective participation across a district to advance reform efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

Co-occurring disorders are important to consider in planning smoking cessation interventions with adolescents. We identify factors associated with smoking and predictors for smoking cessation readiness in a group of adolescents in a residential addiction treatment program. Methods: We conducted a chart review study of 400 clinical records of adolescents aged 13 to 18 at a short-term residential addiction treatment program. We examined the relationships of smoking with use of other drugs, psychiatric disorders, and adverse events. Results: The rate of smoking in the total sample was 79%. Smoking onset was positively associated with the onset of alcohol and other drugs of abuse but followed the onset of cannabis use for over half the sample. Heavy smoking, defined as smoking 10 cigarettes per day on average, was correlated with cocaine and opiate addiction. Over half of the sample (56%) was precontemplative about smoking cessation, whereas 30% were in the contemplative stage (ready to stop in 6 months); 12% were in preparation stage (ready to stop in 30 days); and 2% reported that they already had stopped. Heavy smoking was associated with being precontemplative as was earlier onset of drinking relative to smoking and bipolar diagnosis. Conclusions: Smoking is common in adolescents seeking drug and alcohol treatment and is correlated with the onset and progression of other drug use. Increasing motivation for change and addressing the interface of nicotine, other drugs, and mental health are important for smoking cessation interventions for adolescents in residential addiction treatment settings.

When African American and White women work in higher education in the United States, we are working in institutions which were built on the exclusion of all of us. But we were excluded to different degrees, and those differences in degree persist no matter how much we all may appear to be "in,"

Relational-Cultural Therapy (RCT) is developed to accurately address the relational experiences of persons in de-valued cultural groups. As a model, it is ideal for work with couples: it encourages active participation in relationships, fosters the well-being of everyone involved, and acknowledges that we grow through and toward relationships throughout the lifespan. Part and parcel with relationships is the knowledge that, whether intentionally or not, we fail each other, misunderstand each other, and hurt each other, causing an oftentimes enduring disconnect. This book helps readers understand the pain of disconnect and to use RCT to heal relationships in a variety of settings, including with heterosexual couples, lesbian and gay couples, and mixed race couples. Readers will note a blending of approaches (person-centered, narrative, systems, and feminist theory), all used to change the cultural conditions that can contribute to problems: unequal, sometimes abusive power arrangements, marginalization of groups, and rigid gender, race, and sexuality expectations. Readers will learn to help minimize economic and power disparities and encourage the growth of mutual empathy while looking at a variety of relational challenges, such as parenting, stepfamilies, sexuality, and illness. Polarities of "you vs. me"

The effects of minority and undocumented immigrant status combined with poverty pose a set of unique psychiatric risk factors. Restrictive legislation and policy measures have limited access to health care and other basic human services for undocumented immigrants and their children. Despite the need for mental health support, undocumented immigrants underutilize mental health services as well as other social services and supports. Undocumented status results in an invisible class of people who suffer from significant challenges combined with limited access to services that can assist them. Continue reading

DeconstructingPrivilegeSmForeword by Peggy McIntosh: Teaching about Privilege: Transforming Learned Ignorance into Usable Knowledge

Although scholarly examinations of privilege have increased in recent decades, an emphasis on privilege studies pedagogy remains lacking within institutions. This edited collection explores best practices for effective teaching and learning about various forms of systemic group privilege such as that based on race, gender, sexuality, religion, and class. Formatted in three easy-to-follow sections, Deconstructing Privilege charts the history of privilege studies and provides intersectional approaches to the topic.

Drawing on a wealth of research and real-life accounts, this book gives educators both the theoretical foundations they need to address issues of privilege in the classroom and practical ways to forge new paths for critical dialogues in educational settings. Combining interdisciplinary contributions from leading experts in the field-- such as Tim Wise and Abby Ferber-- with pedagogical strategies and tips for teaching about privilege, Deconstructing Privilege is an essential book for any educator who wants to address what privilege really means in the classroom.

This article attempts to glean from field interviews and secondary sources some of the sociopolitical complexities that underlay women's engagement in Tunisia's 2011-14 constitution-making process. Elucidating such complexities can provide further insight into how women's engagement impacted the substance and enforceability of the constitution's final text. We argue that, in spite of longstanding roadblocks to implement and enforce constitutional guarantees, the greater involvement of Tunisian women in the constitution drafting process did make a difference in the final gender provisions of Tunisia's constitution. Although not all recommendations were adopted, Tunisian women were able to use an autochthonous process to edify the country and set the foundation for greater rights consciousness.

This article also seeks to define the degree and nature of external influence on national efforts to advance women's rights and on the drafting of Tunisia's gender provisions. Although our research suggests that international forces had less of an impact on the Tunisian constitution-making process than we had assumed initially, we also found that many Tunisian women still saw themselves as part of a transnational women's movement in which they were able to engage with a broad network of international women's groups and transnational stakeholders. Our conclusion, thus, is that the Tunisian constitutional project, at least in regards to its gender provisions, can be regarded as intermestic in the sense that it drew directly or indirectly from both local and transnational sources. This shows that even when drafters are able to create constitutions that fit local contexts, they are still deeply influenced by international human rights provisions and relevant structural frameworks.

Finally, this article summarizes some of the early efforts to translate constitutional guarantees into enforceable legislation. While we have deemed Tunisia's drafting process as a success in participatory constitution-making, the country has a considerable way to go to ensure that "equal opportunities for men and women"

I have benefitted from many unearned privileges in my life. I was born into a middle-class white family in the United States, thereby winning several spins of the roulette wheel. While I may have missed out on male privilege, I didn't face being judged negatively by my skin color or my class. I didn't have to beg for food. I wasn't denied an education or forced to marry a much older man. And I didn't have to swim across the Rio Grande or traverse the Aegean Sea in search of a better life.

We examined the influences of being exposed to gender and sexual orientation stereotypes in the media on US-based adolescents aged 12-18. Departing from wishful identification theory, our study allows adolescents to report how TV characters resemble them, rather than whom they emulate, coming from a place of agency. We recruited 639 participants (85% female, 82% heterosexual) to take an online survey. Our findings demonstrated that girls and sexual minorities were less likely to see their gender and sexual orientation reflected in favorite TV characters. Girls and sexual minorities felt more personally affected by stereotypes about women and girls and were more likely to believe that sexism and homophobia needed to be addressed in the media. Across all groups, those who tend to escape their worries through watching television reported feeling more upset at TV content and being more personally affected by negative stereotypes centered on women, girls, and sexual minorities.

Background and Purpose: Depression affects millions of adolescents in the United States each year. This population may benefit from targeted preventive interventions. We sought to understand the internal factors that affect the ability of healthcare organizations to implement an intervention that involves mental health screening and depression prevention treatment of at-risk adolescents in primary care settings. Methods: From November 2011 to July 2016 we conducted a study of the implementation of a multisite (N=30) phase 3 randomized clinical trial of an Internet-based depression prevention intervention program (CATCH-IT). We describe the prevalence of internal barriers on the screening and enrollment process by reporting REACH (the proportion of target audience exposed to the intervention). Results: A total of 369 adolescents were randomized into the intervention or control program. Mean REACH values for the study clinics were 0.216 for screening and 0.181 for enrollment to CATCH-IT. Mean REACH enrollment lost due to internal barriers was 0.233. This translated to 4,691 adolescents lost at screening and 2,443 adolescents lost at enrollment due to internal barriers. Conclusion: We propose a model of the implementation process that emphasizes the importance of positive relational work that assists in overcoming internal barriers to REACH. We also provide implications for policy and practice.

CATCH-IT is a primary care Internet-based modality developed to prevent major depression in adolescents. Adolescents aged 14–21 years were screened for core symptoms of depression without reaching criteria for a mood disorder diagnosis. At baseline, 6 weeks, and at 2.5 years, participants were assessed for automatic negative thoughts (ATQ-R), educational impairment, and perceived social support. Also, motivational interviewing (MI) by the intervening primary care physician was tested against brief advice (BA) to determine how the level of physician involvement affects these psychosocial outcomes. Overall, we found significant decreases in ATQ-R and educational impairment from baseline to 2.5 years. There were no differences for perceived social support, and no differences between the MI and BA groups. Our findings suggest that offering CATCH-IT to adolescents may help attenuate maladaptive cognitive patterns and long-term struggles in school.


WiredtoConnectResearch shows that people cannot reach their full potential unless they are in healthy connection with others. Dr. Amy Banks teaches us how to rewire our brains for healthier relationships and happier, more fulfilling lives.

We all experience moments when we feel isolated and alone. A 2006 Purdue University study found that twenty-five percent of Americans cannot name a single person they feel close to. Yet every single one of us is hardwired for close relationships. The key to more satisfying relationships-be it with a significant other, a family member, or a colleague-is to strengthen the neural pathways in our brains that encourage closeness and connection. In this groundbreaking book, Dr. Banks give us a road map for developing the four distinct neural pathways in the brain that underlie the four most important ingredients for close relationships: calmness, acceptance, emotional resonance, and energy. Wired to Connect gives you the tools you need to strengthen the parts of your brain that encourage connection and to heal the neural damage that disconnection can cause.

Available for purchase at: Wired to Connect: The Surprising Link Between Brain Science and Strong, Healthy Relationships

Edited by: Judith V. Jordan, Ph.D

ThePowerofConnectionRecentDevelopmentsRelationalCulturalTheoryRelational-Cultural theory (RCT) proposes that all people grow through and toward relationships throughout the lifespan. RCT challenges prevailing theories that depict the "separate self" as the hallmark of maturity. Rather than movement toward autonomy and separation, RCT suggests we develop ever more differentiated ways of connecting. An increase in growth-fostering relationships results in: a sense of vitality and zest; increasing clarity about ourselves and others; augmented creativity and ability to take action; an experience of worth and empowerment; and a desire for more connectedness with others. Disconnections are inevitable in relationships and RCT focuses on relational resilience, the ways people can re-establish positive and growth-fostering relationships.

RCT further emphasizes the importance of cultural and societal forces in causing either growth-fostering connection or destructive disconnection. This volume explores the process of change in therapy and in other relationships; how race and other forms of stratification create pain; and how people develop resilience and strength in relationships characterized by mutuality.

This book was based on a special issue of Women and Therapy.

In a randomized controlled trial, we found that a cognitive behavioral program (CBP) was significantly more effective than usual care (UC) in preventing the onset of depressive episodes, although not everyone benefitted from the CBP intervention. The present paper explored this heterogeneity of response. Participants were 316 adolescents (M age"

Kerr and Kerr study the prevalence and traits of global collaborative patents for U.S. public companies, where the inventor team is located both within and outside of the United States. Collaborative patents are frequently observed when a corporation is entering into a new foreign region for innovative work, especially in settings where intellectual property protection is weak. We also connect collaborative patents to the ethnic composition of the firm's U.S. inventors and cross-border mobility of inventors within the firm. The inventor team composition has important consequences for how the new knowledge is exploited within and outside of the firm.

We examined the influences of being exposed to gender and sexual orientation stereotypes in the media on US-based adolescents aged 12-18. Departing from wishful identification theory, our study allows adolescents to report how TV characters resemble them, rather than whom they emulate, coming from a place of agency. We recruited 639 participants (85% female, 82% heterosexual) to take an online survey. Our findings demonstrated that girls and sexual minorities were less likely to see their gender and sexual orientation reflected in favorite TV characters. Girls and sexual minorities felt more personally affected by stereotypes about women and girls and were more likely to believe that sexism and homophobia needed to be addressed in the media. Across all groups, those who tend to escape their worries through watching television reported feeling more upset at TV content and being more personally affected by negative stereotypes centered on women, girls, and sexual minorities.

Youth well-being, social connectedness, and personality traits, such as empathy and narcissism, are at the crux of concerns often raised about the impacts of digital life. Understanding known impacts, and research gaps, in these areas is an important first step toward supporting media use that contributes positively to youth's happiness, life satisfaction, and prosocial attitudes and behaviors. By examining existing work addressing these issues across domains, we found that a complex interplay of individual factors, type of digital media engagement, and experiences in media contexts informs outcomes related to well-being, social connectedness, empathy, and narcissism. We argue that further research is needed to uncover how, where, when, and for whom digital media practices support positive well-being and social connectedness outcomes. Specifically, research needs to move beyond correlational studies to uncover causal connections between traits like narcissism and media use. Longitudinal studies are also needed to explore patterns of media use over time and related impacts. Further research is needed to explore how specific technologies can be designed to support positive well-being, social outcomes, and prosocial personality traits. Finally, research is needed regarding parenting, educational practices, and policies that support positive digital media use and related outcomes. Although existing research suggests that digital life has mixed potentials and effects for well-being, social connectedness, empathy, and narcissism, we provide recommendations for clinicians, policy makers, and educators in partnering with caregivers and youth to support media use that promotes positive outcomes in these areas.

Firms play a central role in the selection, sponsorship, and employment of skilled immigrants entering the United States for work through programs like the H-1B visa. This role has not been widely recognized in the literature, and the data to better understand it have only recently become available. This chapter discusses the evidence that has been assembled to date in understanding the impact of high-skilled immigration from the perspective of the firm and the open areas that call for more research. Since much of the US immigration process for skilled workers rests in the hands of employer firms, a stronger understanding of these implications is essential for future policy analysis, particularly for issues relating to fostering innovation.

This paper investigates the evolution of regional disparities in Finland between 1988 and 1997. The analysis focuses on per capita GDP and its subcomponents, particularly labour productivity, jobs and population. The results show, first, that the evolution of labour productivity and the number of jobs account for the emerged regional divergence of per capita GDP during 1990-1995. Second, even though inter-regional migration tends to have convergent effects on regional per capita GDP, its effect was not strong enough during 1990-1995: the divergence of productivity and jobs dominated. Third, among divergent factors (productivity and jobs), manufacturing contributes the most to the divergence of per capita GDP, whereas private services is the main convergent sector. One conclusion of the paper is that the divergent forces are gaining strength at the expense of convergent ones, as migration directs population into largest regional centres. A decline in convergent factors may occur as migration decreases the need for private sector jobs outside the centres.

The gender earnings gap is an expanding statistic over the lifecycle. We use the LEHD Census 2000 to understand the roles of industry, occupation, and establishment 14 years after leaving school. The gap for college graduates 26 to 39 years old expands by 34 log points, most occurring in the first 7 years. About 44 percent is due to disproportionate shifts by men into higher-earning positions, industries, and firms and about 56 percent to differential advances by gender within firms. Widening is greater for married individuals and for those in certain sectors. Non-college graduates experience less widening but with similar patterns.

Linda Williams, Ph.D., co-authored "Multiple Sexual Violence Prevention Tools: Doses and Boosters", for the Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research. Sexual violence prevention programs on college campuses have proliferated in recent years. While research has also increased, a number of questions remain unanswered that could assist campus administrators in making evidence-based decisions about implementation of prevention efforts. To that end, the field of prevention science has highlighted the need to examine the utility of booster sessions for enhancing prevention education. This study examined how two methods of prevention delivery-small group educational workshops and a community-wide social marketing campaign (SMC)-worked separately and together to promote attitude change related to sexual violence among college students. Results revealed benefits of the SMC as a booster for attitude changes related to being an active bystander to prevent sexual violence. Further, students who first participated in the program showed enhanced attitude effects related to the SMC. This is the first study to look at the combination of effects of different sexual violence prevention tools on student attitudes. It also showcases a method for how to investigate if prevention tools work separately and together.

Georgia Hall shares data that shows how before-school physical activity programs offer a variety of new physical activity skills, reinforce healthy habits, and emphasize the vocabulary, language, and practices of wellbeing. Before-school physical activity programs may also offer a promising model for how schools, families, and out-of-school programs can work together to increase children's physical activity and healthy eating, and promote health and wellness within families through the child's participation.

This paper finds that US employment changed differently relative to output in the Great Recession and recovery than in most other advanced countries or in the US in earlier recessions. Instead of hoarding labor, US firms reduced employment proportionately more than output in the Great Recession, with establishments that survived the downturn contracting jobs massively. Diverging from the aggregate pattern, US manufacturers reduced employment less than output while the elasticity of employment to gross output varied widely among establishments. In the recovery, growth of employment was dominated by job creation in new establishments. The variegated responses of employment to output challenges extant models of how enterprises adjust employment over the business cycle. 

U.S. federal and state family leave legislation requires employers to provide job-protected parental leave for new mothers covered under the legislation. In most cases, the leave is unpaid and rarely longer than 12 weeks in duration. This study evaluates disparities in parental leave eligibility, access, and usage across the family income distribution in the United States. It also describes the links between leave-taking and women's labor market careers. The focus is especially on low-income families, as their leave coverage and ability to afford to take unpaid leave is particularly poor. This study shows that the introduction of both state and federal legislation increased overall leave coverage, leave provision, and leave-taking.

For example, the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) leads to an increased probability of leave-taking by nearly 20 percentage points and increased average leave length by almost five weeks across all states. The new policies did not, however, reduce gaps between low- and high-income families'eligibility, leave-taking, or leave length. In addition, the FMLA effects on leave-taking were very similar across states with and without prior leave legislation, and the FMLAdid not disproportionately increase leave-taking for women who worked in firms and jobs covered by the new legislation, as these women were already relatively well covered by other parental leave arrangements.

Depression is prevalent in adolescents and the rate of successful treatment is low. This highlights a need for depression intervention strategies. This study suggests that internet-based prevention programs might prove useful in preventing depression in adolescents and be implemented into primary care practices. 

This brief report examined teenagers' sexuality communication with their parents and extended families. It compared who teens of early parents (those who had children when they were adolescents) and teens of later parents (those who were adults when they had children) talk to about sex. Eighth grade students (N"

This paper is included in the National Bureau of Economic Research volume, Measuring Entrepreneurial Business: Current Knowledge and Challenges, edited by John Haltiwanger, Erik Hurst, Javier Miranda and Antoinette Schoar.

The authors examine immigrant entrepreneurship and the survival and growth of immigrant-founded businesses over time relative to native-founded companies. Their work quantifies immigrant contributions to new firm creation in a wide variety of fields and using multiple definitions. While significant research effort has gone into understanding the economic impact of immigration into the United States, comprehensive data for quantifying immigrant entrepreneurship are difficult to assemble. In this paper, the authors combine several restricted-access U.S. Census Bureau data sets to create a unique longitudinal data platform that covers 1992-2008 and many states. They describe differences in the types of businesses initially formed by immigrants and their medium-term growth patterns. They also consider the relationship of these outcomes to the immigrants' age at arrival to the United States.

This book focuses on the ways in which mental illness in parents affects children and adolescents. The book also offers the best practices, review of recent literature on the topic of children of depressed parents, and an overview of current depression intervention strategies. 

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