CATCH-IT is a primary care Internet-based modality developed to prevent major depression in adolescents. Adolescents aged 14–21 years were screened for core symptoms of depression without reaching criteria for a mood disorder diagnosis. At baseline, 6 weeks, and at 2.5 years, participants were assessed for automatic negative thoughts (ATQ-R), educational impairment, and perceived social support. Also, motivational interviewing (MI) by the intervening primary care physician was tested against brief advice (BA) to determine how the level of physician involvement affects these psychosocial outcomes. Overall, we found significant decreases in ATQ-R and educational impairment from baseline to 2.5 years. There were no differences for perceived social support, and no differences between the MI and BA groups. Our findings suggest that offering CATCH-IT to adolescents may help attenuate maladaptive cognitive patterns and long-term struggles in school.