2002-2005, 2007-2008

Project Directors: Jo H. Kim, Ph.D., Susan McGee Bailey, Ph.D., Sumru Erkut, Ph.D.

international work   Through this project, a review was developed to identify, annotate, and synthesize research studies and projects/interventions addressing primary and secondary school-related gender-based violence in developing countries. The review was conducted in 2002-2003 and again in 2007-2008.


  In September 2002, the Office of Women in Development (WID) of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) awarded a five-year Indefinite Quantity Contract (IQC) to the Development & Training Services, Inc. (DTS) Consortium. The DTS Consortium, a partnership of 11 organizations with recognized leaders in gender and international development, will support USAID in its mission to increase program results, improve civic participation, and reduce economic and social inequities. The IQC includes education, health, economic growth, democracy and governance, and environment and humanitarian assistance for all developing and transitional countries. The support the DTS Consortium will provide includes research, communications and outreach, technical services and training, and grant making to support gender integration throughout USAID's programs. The Wellesley Centers for Women are part of the DTS Consortium.

Unsafe Schools: A Literature Review of School-Related Gender-Based Violence in Developing Countries

DTS subcontracted to the Wellesley Centers for Women to produce a review to identify, annotate, and synthesize research studies and projects/interventions addressing primary and secondary school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). This report was written by Jo H. Kim and Susan Bailey, with Sumru Erkut, Nada Aoudeh, Ineke Ceder, and Victoria L. Banyard.

Unsafe Schools: A Literature Review of School-Related Gender-Based Violence in Developing Countries provides a wealth of information and should prove to be a valuable resource for researchers and practitioners alike. Although this report is by no means exhaustive, it will stimulate discussion and challenge policymakers and educators to view school safety through a gender lens. 

Elements of the report:
The review of the literature looks first at evidence of the prevalence of school-related gender-based violence in developing countries. The second section of the report provides a context for the subsequent discussion of the consequences of school-related gender-based violence for the health and educational outcomes for students. Specifically, it discusses patterns of economic inequality, cultural beliefs about sex and sexuality, and data on adolescent sexual activity in developing countries. The third section focuses on what is being done to address SRGBV. Both programmatic and policy responses are reviewed and discussed. The report concludes with the authors’ recommendations for further work.

This report is available free as a PDF download here.

The DTS Consortium is distinctive in its scope of specialization and its level of commitment to gender and equity. The Consortium members include:

    ACDI/VOCA is a private, nonprofit organization that promotes broad-based economic growth and the development of civil society in emerging democracies and developing countries. Offering a comprehensive range of technical assistance services, ACDI/VOCA addresses the most pressing and intractable development problems.
  • Wellesley Centers for Women at Wellesley College
    Since 1974, the Wellesley Centers for Women has worked to shape a better world through research, action, training and publications. Groundbreaking, interdisciplinary studies on gender equity in education, sexual harassment in schools, child care, adolescent development, and adult roles in the home and the workplace have influenced public policy for more than two decades.
  • Checchi & Consulting Company, Inc.
    Checchi provides technical assistance, management consulting and research services. Our proven capabilities have been applied to all phases of the technical assistance project cycle, including needs assessment, project design, project execution and performance evaluation.
  • Chemonics International, Inc.
    Chemonics International is a global consulting firm promoting economic growth and higher living standards in developing countries.
  • Counterpart International
    Counterpart International is a non-profit international human development organization founded in 1965 as the Foundation for the Peoples of the South Pacific. We are headquartered in Washington D.C. and work in more than 60 countries.
  • Educational Development Center (EDC)
    Education Development Center (EDC) is an international, non-profit organization with 325 projects dedicated to enhancing learning, promoting health, and fostering a deeper understanding of the world.
  • International Business & Technical Consultants, Inc. (IBTCI)
    IBTCI is a strategic consulting firm specializing in the provision of expert advisory services to the private & public sector or global markets.
  • Louis Berger Group
    One of the leading infrastructure engineering, environmental science and economic development operations in the world.
  • Management Sciences for Health (MSH)
    Management Sciences for Health (MSH) is a private, nonprofit educational and scientific organization working to close the gap between what is known about public health problems and what is done to solve them.
  • Winrock International
    Winrock International is a global team dedicated to increasing long-term productivity, equity, and responsible resource management.