This review will discuss the extant literature on acculturation, language use and proficiency as it pertains to the academic performance of children of immigrant families in the United States. In particular, it will explore the different associations found between bilingualism and academic performance, compared to English dominance/mono-lingualism and academic achievement. Key findings from the research on bilingual education will be discussed as well. A summary of the limitations of the existing research will be presented. This review will conclude with a discussion of the immigrant paradox and recommendations for future research.