The Changing Workforce
The number of jobs in the service industries is rising faster than in any other area of the economy. In 1970, 26% of civilian jobs were in manufacturing, and 26% were in the service industries. By 1990, only 18% of civilian jobs were in manufacturing, while 33% were in the service industries. Research at the Wellesley Centers for Women has addressed the working conditions of women and men in the service economy, including studies of social workers and licensed practical nurses, family child care providers, and early child care teachers. You can read some of our results in the following publications:
Nancy L. Marshall, Aline Sayer & Rosalind C. Barnett. (1997). The Changing Workforce, Job Stress and Psychological Distress. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 2, 99-107.
Nancy L. Marshall & Rosalind C. Barnett. (1993). Variations in Job Strain Across Nursing and Social Work Specialties. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 3, 261-271.
Nancy L. Marshall & Rosalind C. Barnett. (1992). Work-related Support Among Women in Caregiving Occupations. Journal of Community Psychology, 20, 36-42.
Nancy L. Marshall, Rosalind C. Barnett, Grace K. Baruch & Joseph Pleck. (1991). More Than A Job: Women and Stress in Caregiving Occupations. In H. Z. Lopata & J.A. Levy (Eds.). Current Research on Occupations and Professions, Vol. VI (pp. 61-81). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press Inc.
Nancy L. Marshall & Rosalind C. Barnett. (1991). Race and Class and Multiple Role Strains and Gains Among Women Employed in the Service Sector. Women & Health, 17(4), 1-19.
Nancy L. Marshall. (1991). Work Stress and Alcohol Use Among Women in the Health Industry: A Longitudinal Study. Wellesley College, Center for Research on Women Working Paper No. 239.
Nancy L. Marshall. (1991). Work Stress and Social Support Among Women in Helping Professions: A Longitudinal Study. Wellesley College, Center for Research on Women Working Paper No. 240.
Nancy L. Marshall, Rosalind C. Barnett, Grace K. Baruch & Joseph Pleck. (1990). Double Jeopardy: The Costs of Caring at Work and at Home. In E. K. Abel & M. K. Nelson (Eds.). Circles of Care: Work and Identity in Women's Lives (pp. 266-277). Ithaca, NY: SUNY Press.