Publications

The Wellesley Centers for Women (WCW) offers free downloads, selected from our many publications, to our website visitors. We hope that by reading WCW publications, you will gain an understanding of the complexity, depth, and importance of the work undertaken by the researchers and program staff at WCW.

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Authors: Amy Bohnert, Ph.D., Loyola University, Chicago, IL; Nicole Zarrett, Ph.D., University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC; Michael W. Beets, Ph.D., University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC; Author: Georgia Hall, Ph.D., National Institute on Out- of-School Time, Wellesley Centers for Women, Wellesley, MA; Joanna Buscemi, Ph.D., DePaul University, Chicago, IL; Amy Heard, Loyola University, Chicago, IL; and Russell Pate, Ph.D., University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC

Escaping from Worries or Facing Reality: A Survey Study of Adolescent Attitudes about Sexist and Homophobic Stereotypes in Mainstream US Media

Year Published: 2017

Authors: Linda Charmaraman, Amanda Richer, Brianna Ruffin, Budnampet Ramanudom and Katie Madsen

Source: Nordicom

We examined the influences of being exposed to gender and sexual orientation stereotypes in the media on US-based adolescents aged 12-18. Departing from wishful identification theory, our study allows adolescents to report how TV characters resemble them, rather than whom they emulate, coming from a place of agency. We recruited 639 participants (85% female, 82% heterosexual) to take an online survey. Our findings demonstrated that girls and sexual minorities were less likely to see their gender and sexual orientation reflected in favorite TV characters. Girls and sexual minorities felt more personally affected by stereotypes about women and girls and were more likely to believe that sexism and homophobia needed to be addressed in the media. Across all groups, those who tend to escape their worries through watching television reported feeling more upset at TV content and being more personally affected by negative stereotypes centered on women, girls, and sexual minorities.

 

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Digital Life and Youth Well-being, Social Connectedness, Empathy, and Narcissism

Year Published: 2017

Authors: Linda Charmaraman, Carrie James, Katie Davis, Sara Konrath, Petr Slovak, Emily Weinstein, Lana Yarosh

Source: Pediatrics

 

Youth well-being, social connectedness, and personality traits, such as empathy and narcissism, are at the crux of concerns often raised about the impacts of digital life. Understanding known impacts, and research gaps, in these areas is an important first step toward supporting media use that contributes positively to youth’s happiness, life satisfaction, and prosocial attitudes and behaviors. By examining existing work addressing these issues across domains, we found that a complex interplay of individual factors, type of digital media engagement, and experiences in media contexts informs outcomes related to well-being, social connectedness, empathy, and narcissism. We argue that further research is needed to uncover how, where, when, and for whom digital media practices support positive well-being and social connectedness outcomes. Specifically, research needs to move beyond correlational studies to uncover causal connections between traits like narcissism and media use. Longitudinal studies are also needed to explore patterns of media use over time and related impacts. Further research is needed to explore how specific technologies can be designed to support positive well-being, social outcomes, and prosocial personality traits. Finally, research is needed regarding parenting, educational practices, and policies that support positive digital media use and related outcomes. Although existing research suggests that digital life has mixed potentials and effects for well-being, social connectedness, empathy, and narcissism, we provide recommendations for clinicians, policy makers, and educators in partnering with caregivers and youth to support media use that promotes positive outcomes in these areas.

 

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Aggregate Economic Fluctuations and Regional Convergence

Year Published: 1999

Authors: Sari Pekkala Kerr, Alanen A., Eskelinen H., Monnesland J., Susiluoto I. and Tervo H.

Source: Structures and Prospects of Nordic Regional Economies

 

Transmission and Prevention of Mood Disorders among Children of Affectively Ill Parents: A Review

Year Published: 2011

Authors: Beardslee WR, Gladstone TR, O'Connor EE

Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

 

The Economics of Education in Finland – A Historical Perspective

Year Published: 2002

Authors: Sari Pekkala Kerr, Pehkonen J., Nenonen T., Kangasharju, A.,

Source: University of Jyväskylä, School of Business and Economics

 

Education and the Economic and Social Mobility in Finland

Year Published: 2012

Authors: Sari Pekkala Kerr, Kettunen P. ja Simola H., Risto Rinne

Source: The History of Finnish Education

 

The Economics of Education in Finland – A Historical Perspective

Year Published: 2012

Authors: Sari Pekkala Kerr, Kettunen P. ja Simola H.

Source: The History of Finnish Education

 

Firms and the Economics of Skilled Immigration

Year Published: 2015

Authors: Sari Pekkala Kerr, Kerr W., Lerner J., Stern S., Lincoln, W.

Source: Innovation Policy and the Economy

Firms play a central role in the selection, sponsorship, and employment of skilled immigrants entering the United States for work through programs like the H-1B visa. This role has not been widely recognized in the literature, and the data to better understand it have only recently become available. This chapter discusses the evidence that has been assembled to date in understanding the impact of high-skilled immigration from the perspective of the firm and the open areas that call for more research. Since much of the US immigration process for skilled workers rests in the hands of employer firms, a stronger understanding of these implications is essential for future policy analysis, particularly for issues relating to fostering innovation.

 

 

Migration and Regional Convergence among the Finnish Subregions, 1975–1995.

Year Published: 1998

Author: Sari Pekkala Kerr, A.Kangasharju

Source: Pellervo Economic Research Institute

 

Regional Migration and Disparities: Evidence from Finland, 1975-95

Year Published: 1999

Author: Sari Pekkala Kerr

Source: University of Jyväskylä, School of Business and Economics

 

Regional Economic Repercussions of an Economic Crisis: A Sectoral Analysis

Year Published: 2001

Author: Sari Pekkala Kerr, A. Kangasharju

Source: Regional Economic Repercussions of an Economic Crisis: A Sectoral Analysis

This paper investigates the evolution of regional disparities in Finland between 1988 and 1997. The analysis focuses on per capita GDP and its subcomponents, particularly labour productivity, jobs and population. The results show, first, that the evolution of labour productivity and the number of jobs account for the emerged regional divergence of per capita GDP during 1990-1995. Second, even though inter-regional migration tends to have convergent effects on regional per capita GDP, its effect was not strong enough during 1990-1995: the divergence of productivity and jobs dominated. Third, among divergent factors (productivity and jobs), manufacturing contributes the most to the divergence of per capita GDP, whereas private services is the main convergent sector. One conclusion of the paper is that the divergent forces are gaining strength at the expense of convergent ones, as migration directs population into largest regional centres. A decline in convergent factors may occur as migration decreases the need for private sector jobs outside the centres.

 

Regional Housing Market Forecast

Year Published: 2002

Author: Sari Pekkala Kerr, J. Huovari , S. Laakso and J. Luoto

Source: Economic Research Institute

 

Migration in a Core-Periphery Model: Analysis of Agglomeration in Regional Growth Centers.

Year Published: 2000

Author: Sari Pekkala Kerr

Source: University of Jyväskylä, School of Business and Economics

 

The Expanding Gender Earnings Gap: Evidence from the LEHD-2000 Census

Year Published: 2017

Author: Sari Pekkala Kerr, C.Goldin, C.Olivertti, E. Barth.

Source: American Economic Association

The gender earnings gap is an expanding statistic over the lifecycle. We use the LEHD Census 2000 to understand the roles of industry, occupation, and establishment 14 years after leaving school. The gap for college graduates 26 to 39 years old expands by 34 log points, most occurring in the first 7 years. About 44 percent is due to disproportionate shifts by men into higher-earning positions, industries, and firms and about 56 percent to differential advances by gender within firms. Widening is greater for married individuals and for those in certain sectors. Non-college graduates experience less widening but with similar patterns.

 

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What Draws People to Urban Growth Centers: Jobs vs. Pay

Year Published: 2003

Author: Sari Pekkala

Source: What Draws People to Urban Growth Centers: Jobs vs. Pay?

The present study analyses migration patterns in Finland to test if microeconomic evidence for the Harris-Todaro model can be found. The Harris-Todaro hypothesis states that rural-urban migration stems from regional differences in the wage level and the chances of finding work. To test the hypothesis one needs to predict urban and rural wage and employment probability for each individual. This method is applied to a study of the recent migratory trend in Finland in which most migrants are heading towards a few urban growth centers while the rest of Finland is losing its population. The present study finds evidence for the Harris-Todaro model and concludes that rural urban migration is a result of higher wages and, even more so, better employment prospects in urban areas. Demographic factors may serve to reduce the migration flows in future, but this reduction is likely to remain modest. The results suggest that the best way to prevent excessive rural population loss is to pay attention to job-creation schemes, concentrating especially on workers with secondary and tertiary education.

 

The Effect of Rehabilitative Punishments on Juvenile Crime and Labor Market Outcomes

Year Published: 2014

Author: Sari Pekkala, K. Huttunen and V. Mälkönen.

Source: Labour Economics

 

House Money and Entrepreneurship

Year Published: 2015

Author: Sari Pekkala, W.R. Kerr and R.Nanda.

Source: Harvard Business School

 

Personality Traits of Entrepreneurs: A Review of Recent Literature

Year Published: Forthcoming

Author: Sari Pekkala, W.R. Kerr and T. Xu.

Source: Journal of Economic Literature

 

A relational-cultural theory of human development

Year Published: 2006

Author: Jordan, J. V.

Source: Women's Mental Health: A Life-Cycle Approach

 

Women in the workplace: an application of relational cultural theory 

Year Published: 2005

Authors: Jordan, J.V. and Romney, P.

Source: Psychotherapy with Women: Exploring Diverse Contexts and Identities

 

Relational learning in psychotherapy consultation and supervision

Year Published: 2004

Author: Jordan, J.V.

Source: How connections heal: stories from relational-cultural therapy

 

Applications of the relational model to time-limited therapy

Year Published: 2004

Author: Jordan, J.V., Handel, M, Alvarez, M, and Cook-Nobles, R.

Source: The Complexity of Connection: Writings from the Stone Center's Jean Baker Miller Training Institute

 

New Developments in Relational-Cultural Theory

Year Published: 2002

Authors: Jordan, J V., Hartling, L.

Source: Rethinking Mental Health and Disorder: Feminist Perspectives

 

The Role of Mutual Empathy in Relational/Cultural Therapy

Year Published: 2000

Author: Jordan, J. V.

Source: Journal of Clinical Psychology In Session. Vol. 56(8)

 

Relational Practice in Action: A Group Manual

Year Published: 2000

Author: Jordan, J.V., Dooley, K.

Source: Stone Center for Developmental Services and Studies

 

Applications of the Relational Model to Time-Limited Therapy

Year Published: 2000

Authors: Jordan, J.V., Handel, M., Alvarez, M., Cook-Nobles, R.

Source: Stone Center for Developmental Services and Studies

 

Shame and Humiliation: From Isolation to Relational Transformation

Year Published: 2000

Authors: Hartling, L., Rosen, W., Walker, M., Jordan, J.

Source: Stone Center for Developmental Services and Studies

 

Women and the Workplace: Applications of a Psychodynamic Theory

Year Published: 2000

Authors: Fletcher, J., Jordan, J., Miller, J.

Source: The American Journal of Psychoanalysis. Vol. 60, No 3

 

A Relational-Cultural Model: Healing through Mutual Empathy

Year Published: 2001

Authors: Jordan, J. V.

Source: Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic. Vol. 65, No 1

 

Learning at the Margin: New Models of Strength

Year Published: 2002

Authors: Judith V. Jordan

Source: Stone Center Working Paper Series

 

Shattered Trust: Technical and Moral Lessons From an Interrupted First Visit

Year Published: 2002

Authors: Jordan, J.V, Kim, D., Silver, M

Source: Harvard Review of Psychiatry

 

The Relational Health Indices: A Study of Women’s Relationships

Year Published: 2002

Authors: Liang, B., Tracy, A., Taylor, C., Williams, L., Jordan, J., Miller, J.B.

Source: Psychology of Women Quarterly

 

Valuing Vulnerability: New Definitions of Courage

Year Published: 2003

Author: Judith V. Jordan

Source: Stone Center Working Paper Series

 

Commitment to Connection in a Culture of Fear

Year Published: 2005

Author: Judith V. Jordan

Source: Stone Center Working Paper Series

 

Growth-Promoting Relationships Between Youth and Adults: A Focus Group Study

Year Published: 2004

Authors: Spencer, R. Jordan, J., Sazama, J.

Source: Families in Society, 7, Vol 85, No 3

 

Losing Certainty and Finding Voice: One Therapist's Reflections on Doing Therapy in the Last Third of Life

Year Published: 2009

Author: Judith V. Jordan

Source: Women and Therapy

 

The National Lesbian Family Study: 3. Interviews with mothers of five-year-olds

 

Year Published: 2000

Authors: Gartrell N, Banks A, Reed N, Hamilton J, Rodas C, Deck A

Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 70(4)

 

Post-traumatic Stress Disorder: Relationships and Brain Chemistry

Year Published: 2001

Authors: Banks A

Source: Jean Baker Miller Training Institute Project Report #8

 

Growth-in-Connection A Relational-Cultural Model of Growth

Year Published: 2003

Authors: Jordan J, Banks A, Walker M

Source: A Complete Guide to Mental Health in Women

 

Puerto Rican Early Adolescents’ Self-Esteem Patterns

Year Published: 2000

Authors: Sumru Erkut, Laura A. Szalacha, Cynthia García Coll, and Odette Alarcón

Source: Journal of Research on Adolescence

 

Predicting Adolescent Self-Esteem From Participation in School Sports Among Latino Subgroups

Year Published: 2002

Authors: Sumru Erkut and Allison J. Tracy

Source: Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences

 

Discrimination and Puerto Rican children's and adolescents' mental health

Year Published: 2003

Authors: Szalacha LA, Erkut S, García Coll C, Alarcón O, Fields JP, Ceder I.

Source: Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology

 

Use of a storytelling context to improve girls' and boys' geometry skills in kindergarten

Year Published: 2008

Authors: Beth Casey, Sumru Erkut, Ineke Ceder, Jessica Mercer Young

Source: Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology

 

Developing Multiple Language Versions of Instruments for Intercultural Research

Year Published: 2010

Author: Sumru Erkut

Source: Child Development Perspectives

 

The relation of child care to cognitive and language development. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Child Care Research Network

Year Published: 2000

Authors: NICHD Early Child Care Research Network

Source: Child Development, 71(4)

Factors Associated With Fathers' Caregiving Activities and Sensitivity With Young Children

Year Published: 2000

Authors: NICHD Early Child Care Research Network

Source: Journal of Family Psychology, 14(2)

 

Characteristics and Quality of Child Care for Toddlers and Preschoolers

Year Published: 2000

Authors: NICHD Early Child Care Research Network

Source: Applied Developmental Science, 4(3)

 

Parenting and family influences when children are in child care: Results from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care

Year Published: 2001

Authors: NICHD Early Child Care Research Network

Source: Parenting and the child’s world: Influences on intellectual, academic, and social-emotional development(pp. 99-123)

 

Nonmaternal care and family factors in early development: An overview of the NICHD Study Of Early Child Care

Year Published: 2001

Authors: NICHD Early Child Care Research Network

Source: Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 22

 

A new guide for evaluating child care quality

Year Published: 2001

Authors: NICHD Early Child Care Research Network

Source: Bulletin of zero to three: National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families, 21(5)

 

Child-care and family predictors of preschool attachment and stability from infancy

Year Published: 2001

Authors: NICHD Early Child Care Research Network

Source: Developmental Psychology, 37

 

Child care and common communicable illnesses: results from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care

Year Published: 2001

Authors: NICHD Early Child Care Research Network

Source: Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 155

 

Before Head Start: Income and Ethnicity, Family Characteristics, Child Care Experiences, and Child Development

Year Published: 2001

Authors: NICHD Early Child Care Research Network

Source: Early Education and Development, 12(4)

 

Child-care structure-->process-->outcome: direct and indirect effects of child-care quality on young children's development.

Year Published: 2002

Authors: NICHD Early Child Care Research Network

Source: Psychological Science, 13

 

The Relation of Global First-Grade Classroom Environment to Structural Classroom Features and Teacher and Student Behaviors

Year Published: 2002

Authors: NICHD Early Child Care Research Network

Source: The Elementary School Journal, 102(5)

 

Early Child Care and Children's Development Prior to School Entry: Results from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care

Year Published: 2002

Authors: NICHD Early Child Care Research Network

Source: American Educational Research Journal, 39

 

Modeling the Impacts of Child Care Quality on Children's Preschool Cognitive Development

Year Published: 2003

Authors: NICHD Early Child Care Research Network, & Duncan, G. J.

Source: Child Development, 74

 

The NICHD Study of Early Child Care: Contexts of development and developmental outcomes over the first seven years of life

Year Published: 2003

Authors: NICHD Early Child Care Research Network

Source: Early childhood development in the 21st century. (pp. 182-201)

 

Social Functioning in First Grade: Associations with Earlier Home and Child Care Predictors and with Current Classroom Experiences

Year Published: 2003

Authors: NICHD Early Child Care Research Network

Source: Child Development, 74(6)

 

Frequency and intensity of activity of third-grade children in physical education

Year Published: 2003

Authors: NICHD Early Child Care Research Network

Source: Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 157

 

Families matter—even for kids in child care

Year Published: 2003

Authors: NICHD Early Child Care Research Network

Source: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics

 

Early child care and mother–child interaction from 36 months through first grade

Year Published: 2003

Authors: NICHD Early Child Care Research Network

Source: Infant Behavior and Development

 

Does quality of child care affect child outcomes at age 4(1/2)?

Year Published: 2003

Authors: NICHD Early Child Care Research Network

Source: Developmental Psychology

 

Does amount of time spent in child care predict socioemotional adjustment during the transition to kindergarten?

Year Published: 2003

Authors: NICHD Early Child Care Research Network

Source: Child Development

 

Global Collaborative Patents

Year Published: Forthcoming

Author: Sari Pekkala Kerr, D. W.R. Kerr

Source: Harvard Business School

We study the prevalence and traits of global collaborative patents for U.S. public companies, where the inventor team is located both within and outside of the United States. Collaborative patents are frequently observed when a corporation is entering into a new foreign region for innovative work, especially in settings where intellectual property protection is weak. We also connect collaborative patents to the ethnic composition of the firm's U.S. inventors and cross-border mobility of inventors within the firm. The inventor team composition has important consequences for how the new knowledge is exploited within and outside of the firm.

 

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Do children’s attention processes mediate the link between family predictors and school readiness?

Year Published: 2003

Authors: NICHD Early Child Care Research Network

Source: Developmental Psychology

 

Child care and common communicable illnesses in children aged 37 to 54 months

Year Published: 2003

Authors: NICHD Early Child Care Research Network

Source: Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine

 

Gender Equity in Early Childhood Education

Year Published: 2003

Authors: Marshall, N.L., Robeson, W.W., & Keefe, N.

Source: Gender Equity in Early Childhood Education

 

Family Child Care Today: A Report of the Findings of the Massachusetts Cost/Quality Study: Family Child Care Homes

Year Published: 2003

Authors: Marshall, N.L., Creps, C.L., Burstein, N.R., Cahill, K.E., Robeson, W.W., Wang, S.Y., Schimmenti, J., & Glantz, F.B.

Source: Wellesley Centers for Women and Abt Associates, Inc.

 

Studying the effects of early child care experiences on the development of children of color in the U.S.: Toward a more inclusive research agenda

Year Published: 2003

Authors: Johnson, D.J., Jaeger, E., Randolph, S.M., Cauce, A.M., Ward, J., & the NICHD Early Child Care Research Network

Source: Child Development

 

Gender at play: Fourth-grade girls and boys on the playground

Year Published: 2003

Authors: Boyle, D.E., Marshall, N.L., & Robeson, W.W.

Source: American Behavioral Scientist

 

Type of child care and children's development at 54 months

Year Published: 2004

Authors: NICHD Early Child Care Research Network

Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly

 

Trajectories of physical aggression from toddlerhood to middle childhood: Predictors, correlates, and outcomes

Year Published: 2004

Authors: NICHD Early Child Care Research Network

Source: Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development